This is a summary, written by members of the CITF Secretariat, of:

Costiniuk CT, Singer J, Lee T, Galipeau Y, McCluskie PS, Arnold C, Langlois MA, Needham J, Jenabian MA, Burchell AN, Samji H, Chambers C, Walmsley S, Ostrowski M, Kovacs C, Tan DHS, Harris M, Hull M, Brumme ZL, Lapointe HR, Brockman MA, Margolese S, Mandarino E, Samarani S, Vulesevic B, Lebouche B, Angel JB, Routy JP, Cooper CL, Anis AH; COVAXHIV Study Group. Antibody neutralization capacity after COVID-19 vaccination in people with HIV (CIHR Canadian HIV trials network 328). AIDS. 2023 Aug 3. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000003680.

The results and/or conclusions contained in the research do not necessarily reflect the views of all CITF members.

A CITF-funded study, published in AIDS, found that vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization capacity was similar between people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative people without past COVID-19 infection. Although both HIV-positive and HIV-negative people demonstrated hybrid immunity (immunity from vaccination and infection), neutralization was significantly higher among HIV-negative people than PLWH. The study was led by Dr. Cecilia Costiniuk (McGill University) in collaboration with the COVAXHIV study group headed by Dr. Aslam Anis (University of British Columbia).

Key findings:

  • There were no differences in the neutralization capacity for the ancestral, Delta, and Omicron variants between PLWH and HIV-negative people (both groups had no prior SARS-CoV-2 infection).
  • For participants with past SARS-CoV-2 infection, neutralization capacity was significantly higher for ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron variants in HIV-negative controls than in PLWH. The neutralization capacity for the Delta variant was also higher in HIV-negative people than in PLWH, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Neutralization capacity against ancestral (Wuhan), Delta, and Omicron (BA.1) spike protein was assessed in samples collected three months after the second dose of mRNA or AstraZeneca vaccine in 256 individuals with and 256 individuals without HIV infection. Most participants had received two doses of mRNA vaccine (>85% in each group), while the remainder had received either a combination of AstraZeneca and mRNA vaccines, or two doses of AstraZeneca vaccine.

Of the 256 individuals in each group, 45 (17.6%) PLWH and 56 (21.9%) controls had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection at some point prior to the 3-month mark after receiving dose 2 (+/-1 month). Median ages were 54.2 and 45.5 years for PLWH and controls, respectively. PLWH were 72% male vs 35% of controls, while 48% of PLWH were aged >55 years vs 31% of controls.