This is a summary, written by members of the CITF Secretariat, of:

Vinh DC, Abel L, Bastard P, Cheng MP, Condino-Neto A, Gregersen PK, Haerynck F, Cicalese MP, Hagin D, Soler-Palacín P, Planas AM, Pujol A, Notarangelo LD, Zhang Q, Su HC, Casanova JL, Meyts I; COVID Human Genetic Effort. Harnessing type I IFN immunity against SARS-CoV-2 with early administration of IFN-β. J Clin Immunol. 2021 Jun 8:1–18. doi: 10.1007/s10875-021-01068-6.

The results and/or conclusions contained in the research do not necessarily reflect the views of all CITF members.

People lacking certain immunity genes, particularly those involved in the can be more susceptible to infectious diseases. The link between this pathway and severe COVID-19 has already been established. A defective IFN-I pathway, due either to genetic mutations or to autoantibodies that neutralize this cytokine, has been shown to lead to uncontrolled viral replication early on after SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in severe disease. In this review, published in the Journal of Clinical Immunology, CITF-funded researcher Dr. Donald Vinh, CITF Scientific Advisor Dr. Matthew Cheng and others, explore two therapeutic routes that use different IFN molecules for the treatment of COVID-19.

More than a year into the pandemic, the best prevention and treatment for severe COVID-19 pneumonia remains elusive. However, defects in IFN-I Type I interferons (IFNs) are proteins that are secreted by infected cells and have three major functions:
1-they induce antimicrobial states in infected and neighbouring cells that limit the spread of the infection to other cells.
2-they modulate the early steps of the immune response and control inflammation
3-they activate the later stages of the immune system.
, due to genetic mutations or naturally existing neutralizing autoantibodies, underlie severe COVID-19 in at least 10% of people. Translating these findings may open new therapeutic avenues. Early clinical trials using IFN show promising results for COVID-19 patients. IFNs are natural antiviral agents, which can also be used to control inflammation.

This review covers the following topics:

– The need for effective treatments even in the COVID-19 vaccine era,

– A summary of IFN-I pathway restorative treatments of various diseases used in the last 50 years;

– IFN molecules used in past, current and proposed COVID-19 trials.